Types Of Prostate Cancer Surgery
Traditional prostate removal surgery is referred to as radical prostatectomy, during which prostate gland is removed surgically under the influence of general anesthesia. Next to skin cancer the prostate cancer is the most common cancer type reported in America. Based on how aggressive it is, it is classified into 4 stages:
- Stage1: In this stage, the cancer is localized and is smaller in size.
- Stage 2: In this stage, the cancer remains localized but becomes larger in size.
- Stage 3: In this stage, the cancer breaks into seminal vesicles and is referred to as locally advanced cancer.
- Stage 4: In this advanced stage, the cancer becomes metastatic i.e. it spreads to nearby parts of the body such as bladder, rectum or lymph nodes.
Criteria For Prostate Cancer Surgery
The treatment of prostate cancer is never free of risks. In the end, the risk benefit ratio is thoroughly considered before performing prostate cancer surgery for a patient. Treatment is only provided if it is necessary as prostate cancer grows slowly.
Types Of Surgeries Done To Treat Prostate Cancer
Following are the types of surgeries done for treating prostate cancer:
- Radical prostatectomy:
This type of prostate cancer surgery is offered to men with localized cancer who are also healthy and in a good shape. This procedure involves the complete removal of prostate gland and the cancer cells growing inside it, along with the surrounding lymph nodes and the seminal vesicles. This surgery may be performed via various techniques such as:
- Laparoscopy or keyhole technique: In this procedure, the surgeon is required to make 5-6 cuts in the region of abdomen for the prostate removal.
- Robot-assisted surgery: In this technique, robotic arms may be used by the surgeon, which are operated from the computer.
- Retropubic surgery: In this type only one cut is made to remove the prostate.
- Perineal surgery: In this technique, the cut is made between the back passage and the testicles.
Pros And Cons Of Radical Prostatectomy
The advantage of this type of surgery is removal of cancer by removing the prostate provided that it is within the gland and has not metastasized. However, the prostate removal can be disadvantageous as prostate also takes part is semen production and with its removal there will be no ejaculation which will subsequently affect fertility. Dry orgasms are also a very common post-surgery effect in which the person orgasms without really ejaculating. The common side effects may include erectile dysfunction and urinary incontinence amongst others.
- Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP):
TURP does not focus on treating the cancer instead it alleviates the most concerning symptom of prostate cancer which is difficult urination. This occurs due to prostate enlargement which narrows the urethra. It is carried out under general anesthesia and employs an insertion of a thin metallic tube. The aim is to remove tiny pieces of prostate tissue. The removed tissues are then flushed away by passing fluid through the bladder.
The side effects of TURP may be urine infection, retrograde ejaculation, blood in urine, erectile dysfunction, slow flow of the urine and stress incontinence.
Speak to your doctor if you are planning your prostate surgery.
- Cornu, J. N., Ahyai, S., Bachmann, A., de la Rosette, J., Gilling, P., Gratzke, C., … & Madersbacher, S. (2015). A systematic review and meta-analysis of functional outcomes and complications following transurethral procedures for lower urinary tract symptoms resulting from benign prostatic obstruction: an update. European urology, 67(6), 1066-1096.