Hematospermia Definition, Causes and Treatments
Bloody ejaculation may send alarming signals to a man and his partner. Such a condition that involves blood-tinged penile ejaculation is called hematospermia. Also known as hemospermia, the condition conjures fears of cancer or a urologic disease.
Three factors that dictate the extent of hematospermia evaluation include
- Patient age
- Presence of associated hematuria
- Duration, recurrence of the condition
Most malignancies linked to hematospermia occur in patients aged over 40 years. In some instances, there is no apparent cause of the disorder. In case of chronic hematospermia, more aggressive intervention is required to identify an etiologic factor.
The condition may occur repeatedly over weeks and months or can be a single episode.
Hematospermia causes may be linked to the inflammation of any glands, organs, or ducts that are responsible for the storage or production of seminal fluid, including prostate, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, epididymis, and urethra. Many studies link inflammation and infection with hematospermia in men aged less than 37 years.
- Inflammation may be the result of trauma or irritation.
- It can be caused due to calcified deposits, stones in the prostate, urethra, bladder, prostate, or seminal vesicles
- Inflammation may also be caused due to fungal, bacterial, viral, or parasitic infections
- Some sexually transmitted diseases are also linked to hematospermia, including gonorrhea, herpes, and chlamydia
Besides inflammation and infection, a tumor, obstructed ducts, systemic factors, cyst in prostate, vascular abnormalities, trauma, or some medical procedures may result in bleeding in the genitals. As a result, blood may show up in semen.
Medical Causes of Hematospermia
Transrectal ultrasound prostate biopsy, a medical procedure that involves removal of parts of prostate tissue to detect cancer, may be liked to hematospermia. Other medical procedures often blamed for causing hematospermia include brachytherapy, radiation therapy, vasectomy, or transurethral resection of prostate (for BPH). The condition may also be the result of pelvic fracture, testicular or perineal trauma, prolonged sexual abstinence, and injury during sex.
Systemic Hematospermia Causes
Several disorders that affect the body, such as leukemia, hemophilia, chronic liver disease, and hypertension, are also linked to hematospermia.
- The number of times you have noticed blood in your semen
- Any other medical hematospermia treatment that you may be taking
- Any prostate biopsy or urologic tests undergone by you recently
- Travel to tuberculosis areas
- Medications you are taking for treatment for hematospermia
- Any other symptoms, including urinary problems, unexplained weight loss, experienced by you
A physical examination is conducted to rule out different conditions linked to hematospermia and perform a rectal exam to detect cysts in seminal vesicles or hard spots on the prostate. A complete blood test, urine culture and analysis are also required to diagnose the condition. The doctor may also require you to undergo a test for sexually transmitted diseases if your symptoms relate to STD. Men with frequent incidences of blood in the urine may also have to undergo a transrectal ultrasound, where the doctor wants to detect any abnormalities in the seminal vesicles, prostate, or other tissues.
Hematospermia treatmentmay include antibiotics for infections and anti-inflammatory medication. The treatment may depend on your condition and symptoms – if an STD or other medical condition is detected as one of the hematospermia causes, the doctor may prescribe a treatment for that condition.